no, if you want to irritate the academics and publish a new species you can.
in fact you don't even need to publish it in a journal. A facebook post might be sufficient, if you've got more than 1000 followers. Or you could publish it in a letter to the editor of your local newspaper. Or you can publish it here if you can find a way of making sure your post won't ever be deleted. You can publish it in a speech, or you can publish it by accident in a post on some college's facebook page.
there are specific rules governing publication, but they're very simple. Your publication must include the name of the species and a diagnostic description. The name must follow certain rules such as not being in use already. The description could be as simple as a couple words, maybe a single sentence. It just has to include the name and at least one specifically diagnostic trait.