The nuclear family has existed since the Middle Ages in core Europe.
Xianbei are closer to Evenki, Oroqen, Daur and Mongol in both autosomal and Y haplogroup chromosome DNA than they are to northern Han and southern Han Chinese. Northern Han and southern Han Chinese are more similar to each other than they are to Xianbei and northern ethnic minorities like Mongols and Tungusic Evenkis.
Sixteen sequences of the hypervariable segment I (HVS-I, 16039-16398) in mtDNA control region from ancient Tuoba Xianbei remains excavated from Qilang Mountain Cemetery were analyzed. In which, 13 haplotypes were found by 25 polymorphic sites. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.98 and 0.0189, respectively, and the mean of nucleotide number differences was 6.25. Haplogroup analysis indicates these remains mainly belong to haplogroup C (31.25%) and D (43.75%). According to the published data were considered, we can suggest that the Tuoba Xianbei presented a close genetic affinity to Oroqen, Outer Mongolian and Ewenki populations, especially Oroqen.