To answer that question, we might ask another For whom should we have empathy? Empathy makes us kinder to beings with whom we empathize. Animals with big round eyes, like baby seals, arouse more empathy than chickens, on whom we inflict vastly more suffering. People can even be reluctant to “harm” robots that they know can feel nothing at all. On the other hand, fish – cold, slimy, and unable to scream arouse little sympathy, although, there is plenty of evidence that they feel pain just as birds and mammals do. Empathy can make us act unjustly. Subjects in an experiment listened to an interview with a terminally ill child. Some were told to try to be as objective as possible, while others were told to imagine what the child feels. All were then asked if they wanted to move the child up the waiting list for treatment, ahead of other children who had been assessed as having higher priority. Three-quarters of those told to imagine what the child feels made this request, compared to only one-third of those told to try to be objective. Likewise, empathy with a handful of children who are, or are believed to be, harmed by vaccines largely drives popular resistance to vaccinating children against dangerous diseases. As a result, millions of parents do not have their children vaccinated, and hundreds of children become ill, with many more affected, sometimes fatally, by the disease than would have suffered adverse effects from the vaccine. So, empathy is good when it is good, and bed when it is bed.