Coincidently, another Han Chinese Yang family who were hereditary imperial bodyguards of the Ming imperial family in Nanjing moved southwest with the Southern Ming Emperor to Yunnan in 1658 and during the Qing dynasty the Yang family established themselves as hereditary leaders of Kokang on the China Myanmar border in the 18th century under Yang Xiancai in 1739, receiving recognition from the Qing dynasty as hereditary magistrates of Kokang. This Yang family ruled until 1959 when Myanmar abolished and hereditary noble titles. Yang Zhencai was the last ruler of Kokang.
The Tusi was a system where native ethnic minority chiefs in the southwest would be hereditary leaders over their area under dynasties in China. There were many Tusi in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi and Guizhou. The Tusi fowarded tribute and each Tusi chief was succeeded by a family member and confirmed by the Emperor.
The Qing dynasty abolished many of the native southwestern ethnic minority Tusi chiefdoms and converted them to regular bureacratic administration. Most of the Tusi were ruled by native ethnic minority chiefs.
The Miao hereditary Tusi chief Ma Qiancheng and his wife Qin Liangyu helped the Ming dynasty fight against Yang Yinglong's rebellion. Qin Liangyu and her son Ma Xianglin led their Miao army to fight against the Qing dynasty.
A Tusi chief Sha Dingzhou revolted against the Ming hereditary Duke Qianguo Mu Tianbo in Yunnan.